English meaning: bear
    Deutsche Übersetzung: “Bär”
    Note: (or r̥k̂-s-o-s besides r̥k̂-to-s?)
    Material: O.Ind. ŕ̥kṣa- m. “bear” (in addition a new fem. r̥k̂ṣī “Bärin”) = jAv. arša-, common O.Ind. -ĝh- > -kṣ- : jAv. -ĝh- > -xš-, -š- phonetic mutation Osset. ars, Arm. arj (influenced from arjn “dark brown”), Alb. ari, Gk. ἄρκτος, newer ἄρκος, in addition (?) the VN ᾽Αρκάδες,
    Note: Alb. harusha ‘she-bear” : aquitO.N. PN Harsus : O.Ind. ŕ̥kṣa- m. “bear” proves the cognate for she-bear was older than cognate for bear since ending -a is feminine; alb has saved the matriarchal aspect of the huntress godess. Alb. arithi (diminutive)’standing like a bear” (*ar(h)i) ari “bear” (The stem final -θ- has been dropped for reasons of popular etymology, in order to avoid semantic confusion with the hypochoristic-diminutive formations in -th.) : Arm. arj “bear”, Welsh arth “bear” [common Alb. - Welsh - k̂ > -th phonetic mutation]. M.Ir. art, Welsh arth “bear”, Gaul. Deae Artioni “Bärengöttin”, Lat. ursus “bear”, perhaps Hitt. ḫartagga- name eines Raubtiers; aquitO.N. PN Harsus, Basque hartz “bear” are Celt. Lw.; Pers. xirs “bear” soll auf Iran. *r̥sa- = IE r̥k̂o- weisen, whereupon also Osset. ars go back could.
    References: WP. II 322, WH. II 842, Specht KZ 66, 26 f., IE Decl. 239 f., interprets the bear as “ destroyer, damager “, to O.Ind. rákṣas- n. “ destruction “, Av. raš- “beschädigen” (see 864); compare also Frisk Gk. et. Wb. 141 f.

Proto-Indo-European etymological dictionary. 2015.

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